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After Alexander The Wars of the Diadochi


Alexander seemingly didn’t plan for his empire’s survival without him. On his deathbed, when asked about his successor, he simply said, “the strongest.” This vague response fueled a decade of power struggles among his generals, known as the Wars of the Diadochi.

After Alexander’s death, the generals divided the empire into personal kingdoms, a period marked by conflicts, betrayals, and shifting loyalties among mercenaries. Antigonus Monophthalmos aimed for a united empire under one ruler, while others sought to expand their territories.

Alexander’s inadequate

The chaos arose due to Alexander’s inadequate succession planning; the only heirs were a mentally impaired half-brother and a posthumous son. Attempts to maintain a central authority failed as various generals declared themselves provincial governors. A brief collaboration ensued to suppress rebellions, but in 321 B.C., rivalry escalated Read more

The Final March and the Legacy of Alexander


If Alexander’s soldiers believed the war had concluded, they were mistaken. Darius, still evading capture, hid in Ecbatana. In the spring of 330 B.C., Alexander redirected north in pursuit. Though Darius contemplated surrender, his second-in-command, Bessus, the satrap of Bactria, opposed it vehemently. Bessus arrested Darius and retreated toward his home province.

Alexander relentlessly pursued, covering an astonishing 36 miles daily. Near the Caspian Sea, the armies confronted each other. Bessus, betraying Darius by fatally stabbing him, declared himself King Artaxerxes IV, asserting Achaemenid lineage. Viewing Bessus as a rebel, Alexander pursued him into Central Asia, capturing and executing him. Subsequently, Alexander embarked on six aimless years beyond the known world, engaging hill tribes, scaling citadels, and confronting steppes’ horsemen Gaugamela Triumph and the Persian Conquest. His Indian fo

Gaugamela Triumph and the Persian Conquest


The pivotal clash that reshaped history unfolded on October 1, 331 B.C., at the Battle of Gaugamela. Employing a strategic masterpiece, Alexander leveraged the superior speed and discipline of his troops and exploited Darius’s temperament. A deft maneuver shifted his force to the right, unsettling the Persian ranks. Darius, falling into the trap After Alexander The Wars of the Diadochi, ordered flanking troops to follow suit, leading many to stumble on the challenging terrain.

In the center, Persian chariots charged the Macedonian phalanx, but a swift opening of ranks allowed the chariots to pass harmlessly, met by waiting cavalry at the rear. Alexander identified a gap in the Persian lines, charging straight for Darius’s chariot, prompting the king to flee once again. The Macedonians suffered minimal losses, while Persia incurred a staggering 50,000 casualties compared to Macedonia’s 1,000.


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War with the Normans part 22

And I could mention several of them, had not time obliterated their names from my memory. All this took place before my father was elevated to the throne. On his accession he found all...

War with the Normans part 21

IX This man then was the acknowledged master of all philosophy and the youth flocked to him. (For he expounded to them the doctrines of Plato and Proclus, and of the two philosophers, Porphyry...

War with the Normans part 20

Consequently his language was not adaptable nor at all polished. For the same reason, too, his character was austere and entirely unadorned with grace. His studies too had contracted his brows and he literally...

War with the Normans part 19

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