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After Alexander The Wars of the Diadochi

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Alexander seemingly didn’t plan for his empire’s survival without him. On his deathbed, when asked about his successor, he simply said, “the strongest.” This vague response fueled a decade of power struggles among his generals, known as the Wars of the Diadochi.

After Alexander’s death, the generals divided the empire into personal kingdoms, a period marked by conflicts, betrayals, and shifting loyalties among mercenaries. Antigonus Monophthalmos aimed for a united empire under one ruler, while others sought to expand their territories.

Alexander’s inadequate

The chaos arose due to Alexander’s inadequate succession planning; the only heirs were a mentally impaired half-brother and a posthumous son. Attempts to maintain a central authority failed as various generals declared themselves provincial governors. A brief collaboration ensued to suppress rebellions, but in 321 B.C., rivalry escalated Read more

The Final March and the Legacy of Alexander

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If Alexander’s soldiers believed the war had concluded, they were mistaken. Darius, still evading capture, hid in Ecbatana. In the spring of 330 B.C., Alexander redirected north in pursuit. Though Darius contemplated surrender, his second-in-command, Bessus, the satrap of Bactria, opposed it vehemently. Bessus arrested Darius and retreated toward his home province.

Alexander relentlessly pursued, covering an astonishing 36 miles daily. Near the Caspian Sea, the armies confronted each other. Bessus, betraying Darius by fatally stabbing him, declared himself King Artaxerxes IV, asserting Achaemenid lineage. Viewing Bessus as a rebel, Alexander pursued him into Central Asia, capturing and executing him. Subsequently, Alexander embarked on six aimless years beyond the known world, engaging hill tribes, scaling citadels, and confronting steppes’ horsemen Gaugamela Triumph and the Persian Conquest. His Indian fo

Gaugamela Triumph and the Persian Conquest

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The pivotal clash that reshaped history unfolded on October 1, 331 B.C., at the Battle of Gaugamela. Employing a strategic masterpiece, Alexander leveraged the superior speed and discipline of his troops and exploited Darius’s temperament. A deft maneuver shifted his force to the right, unsettling the Persian ranks. Darius, falling into the trap After Alexander The Wars of the Diadochi, ordered flanking troops to follow suit, leading many to stumble on the challenging terrain.

In the center, Persian chariots charged the Macedonian phalanx, but a swift opening of ranks allowed the chariots to pass harmlessly, met by waiting cavalry at the rear. Alexander identified a gap in the Persian lines, charging straight for Darius’s chariot, prompting the king to flee once again. The Macedonians suffered minimal losses, while Persia incurred a staggering 50,000 casualties compared to Macedonia’s 1,000.

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After a decade as emperor

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After a decade as emperor, with doctrinal disputes put to rest, Theodosius felt he was in a position to crack down. In 391, he issued the formal imperial edict banning traditional sacrifice and religious...

Son of Constantius

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That last Galerian persecution backfired completely. The young general Constantine (son of Constantius, who had ruled Britain for Diocletian and himself briefly succeeded to an unsteady throne) saw a chance to grasp for power....

Stiff-necked qualities of Judaism

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The latter quality derived from the more stiff-necked qualities of Judaism. Judaism takes its name from a place, Judaea, and the ancient word for a member of the cult, Judaeus, meaning “person from Judaea.”...

War with the Normans part 22

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And I could mention several of them, had not time obliterated their names from my memory. All this took place before my father was elevated to the throne. On his accession he found all...

War with the Normans part 21

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IX This man then was the acknowledged master of all philosophy and the youth flocked to him. (For he expounded to them the doctrines of Plato and Proclus, and of the two philosophers, Porphyry...

War with the Normans part 20

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Consequently his language was not adaptable nor at all polished. For the same reason, too, his character was austere and entirely unadorned with grace. His studies too had contracted his brows and he literally...

War with the Normans part 19

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This man had not studied very much under learned professors, but through his natural cleverness and quick intelligence and further by the help of God (which he had obtained by his mother’s ardent supplications,...

Fish Bread

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Falcon part 3

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