Home TM9


Parmenides Empedocles and Anaxagoras


Exploring Ancient Cosmologies

Parmenides (c. 450 BCE) The Sphere of All, Wreaths of Fire

Parmenides of Elea in Italy challenges conventional physics by arguing against the existence of motion, change, and differences in matter (quoted by Simplicius in Phys. 146.5). Despite this, he describes the “beliefs of mortals,” representing his view of the deceptive physical world Ionic Thought’s Influence, akin to the Buddhist concept of maya. Parmenides envisions heavenly bodies as concentrations of fire-vapor, regulated by “Necessity” to move between an inner “wreath” of fire and an outer solid sphere (Aetius 2.7.1). It is unclear whether he perceived the “wreath” as an asteroid belt and the outer shell as a true sphere, leaving ambiguity about the shape of the earth.

Empedocles and Anaxagoras Reflections of Light

Empedocles of Acragas (mid-5th century BCE) seeks

Ionic Thought’s Influence


Concepts of Celestial Wheels and Bowls of Fire

This section explores the impact of Ionic thought on early Greek cosmology, focusing on key figures such as Xenophanes of Colophon and Heraclitus of Ephesus. Their contributions, building upon Milesian theories, delve into the condensation of heavenly bodies into fiery clouds and circular courses, providing insights into the evolving understanding of the universe.

Xenophanes of Colophon (c. 570-490 BCE)

Xenophanes migrated from Ionia to Italy, fleeing the Medes’ takeover, and carried forward Milesian theory. While emphasizing the de-anthropomorphization of god Anaximander of Miletus, he shared the view of heavenly bodies condensing from earth’s exhalations into fiery clouds. Similar to Anaximines, Xenophanes envisioned these bodies following circular courses, conceived as bands or zones, and becoming obscured behind high parts of the earth (Aetius 2.20.3).


Anaximander of Miletus


Anaximander of Miletus (c. 550 BCE) Exploring Celestial Fire and Wheels

Around 550 BCE, Anaximander of Miletus presented innovative ideas about the cosmos, envisioning the Earth as a cylinder surrounded by air and fire, likened to the bark of a tree. His cosmology aimed to explain celestial phenomena through physical and mathematical terms, introducing the concept of heavenly bodies as wheels of fire enclosed by air. This article explores Anaximander’s celestial theories and the evolving understanding of the universe in early Greek thought Parmenides Empedocles and Anaxagoras.

Anaximander’s Celestial Scheme

Anaximander proposed a unique celestial scheme where heavenly bodies, described as wheels of fire akin to chariot wheels, were enclosed by air. He depicted their light as an axle, pipe, vent, or bellows-nozzle, emitting fire jets. Eclipses and lunar variations were attributed to the opening

Customized Tour Balkan

Customized Tours Balkan Day 1 Our Balkan Holidays tour starts from Sofia to Thessaloniki sister of Alexander the GreatOur Customized Tours Balkan starts… 310 km, 4 hours (Bulgaria – Greece)In the morning we leave...

Taste of Balkan Tour

Private Balkan tours Day 1 Our Private Balkan tours start from Sofia and goes to ThessalonikiPrivate Balkan tours start… 310 km, 4 hour drive (Bulgaria – Greece)Your private Balkan tour starts from Bulgaria. In the...

Communist Bulgaria Tour

Communist Bulgaria Tour Day 1 Sofia – Pravets – VarshetsStart for private tours Bulgariaa. For Communist Bulgaria Tour the guide will meet you at the airport in Sofia. Then you will leave for the...

Customized tour Bulgaria

After a hardworking month or year, the normal thing is to think of a way to relax. Many and different the ways are but the most common one is to travel. Although the easiest...

Private Bulgaria tours Yachting

Private Bulgaria tours yachting in a different yachting wayClose your eyes and think about your dream private Bulgaria tours. Also, think about private Bulgaria tours yachting. And get ready to explore the country and...

Bulgaria Tour Balchik Kaliakra Yailata

Balchik Kaliakra Yailata – to remember your Bulgaria tourOur offer is for one day Bulgaria tour Balchik. Kaliakra, Yailata and Balchik are not far away from Varna. And they are on the Bulgarian coast...

Beglik Tash Tour

Tours Bulgaria Beglik Tash – one-day tourTours Bulgaria Beglik Tash include Nessebar, Beglik Tash and the river RopotamoBecause the tour starts from Nessebar, here we give you short information about the distance from the...