As Alexander confronted the resilient city of Tyre, Darius extended a remarkable peace offer through an envoy. Darius proposed peace, the safe return of his family, ten thousand gold talents (equivalent to about $3 billion today), all the Macedonian-conquered land, and the hand of his daughter in marriage. Parmenion, the top-ranking general, advised acceptance, but Alexander, fueled by growing ambitions, declined. His vision now reached beyond conquests; he aspired to establish a universal state marked by racial harmony and equality, with himself at the helm Alexander’s Conquests From the Gordian Knot to Tyre’s Fall.
Before departing Tyre, a Samaritan delegation sought Alexander’s favor, leading to the construction of a rival temple on Mt. Gerizim, challenging the Jewish temple in Jerusalem. The siege of Gaza followed, and then Alexander turned east, reaching Jerusalem. The Jews, impressed by the prophecy of his coming in the book of Daniel, welcomed him warmly. Alexander spared the city, declaring Judah tax-exempt for one year out of seven in observance of the Torah’s “Sabbath year.”
Continuing into Egypt, Alexander was hailed as a liberator, crowned as a pharaoh, and initiated construction of Alexandria. A pilgrimage to the oracle at the Siwa oasis marked a significant spiritual moment. With his rear secured, Alexander set his sights on the heart of the Persian Empire for a decisive encounter.
Darius meticulously prepared for their second clash at Gaugamela Private Tour Bulgaria, improving the battlefield’s flatness for maximum troop mobility. He employed chariots with blades and introduced fifteen war elephants, sourced from India. A lunar eclipse added an air of significance to both camps, signaling the impending momentous battle.